In Finland, collective agreements are of general application. This means that a collective agreement in an industry becomes a general legal minimum for an individual`s employment contract, whether or not he or she is unionized. For this condition to apply, half of the workers in this sector must be unionized and therefore support the agreement. As a general rule, the negotiation of the first collective agreement lasts up to six months. Negotiations on renewal agreements will also take a few months, but the old agreement will remain in force during negotiations. Pro`s collective agreement guarantees a level playing field of contractual relationship and fair compensation. In Fibreboard, the Supreme Court held that an employer`s decision to allocate part of its activities, after its three-part analysis, was a mandatory bargaining topic. First, subcontracting is in the literal sense of the NLRA`s term “conditions of employment.” Second, the fact that subcontracting is a subject of compulsory bargaining has an impact on the objectives of the NRL, putting “a crucial problem for work and management in the framework most conducive to industrial peace by Congress” – collective bargaining. Third, other employers in the same sector have looked at contract awarding in negotiations, rather than leaving it to the discretion of management. In his agreement, Justice Potter Stewart added that issues “at the heart of corporate control,” such as decisions on “investment capital commitment and the fundamental volume of the business,” are not mandatory bargaining topics.
The collective agreement covers you against arbitrary dismissals and dismissals, because the agreements set out the rules to be followed in the event of termination, i.e. the so-called termination procedures. Sections 8(a) (5) and 8 (b) (3) of the LNRA define the absence of collective bargaining as an unfair labour practice (29 U.S.C.A. 158, [b]). The aggrieved party may submit a fee for unfair labour practices to the NNRB, which has the power to prevent or stop the practice of unfair labour practices. In Sweden, about 90% of employees are subject to collective agreements and 83% in the private sector (2017).   Collective agreements generally contain minimum wage provisions. Sweden does not have legislation on minimum wages or legislation extending collective agreements to disorganised employers. Unseated employers can sign replacement agreements directly with unions, but many do not. The Swedish model of self-regulation applies only to jobs and workers covered by collective agreements.  There are provisions that are covered by collective agreements that are not governed by legislation.
These issues include travel expenses, vacation bonuses, extra days off (called “pekkasvapaat”) or sick or maternity leave benefits. Duty to negotiate in good faith During the negotiation process, the parties are not required by law to reach an agreement. However, they must negotiate in good faith (29 U.S.C.A. Although faithful is a somewhat subjective term, the courts will consider all the circumstances of the negotiations, including off-the-table conduct such as pressure and threats (NLRB v. Billion Motors, 700 F.2d 454 [8. Cir. 1983]). Most authorities agree that an absolute refusal to pay is bad faith (Wooster).
Collective bargaining allows workers and employers to voluntarily agree on a wide range of issues. Nevertheless, it is limited to some extent by federal and regional laws. A collective agreement cannot be entered into by contract, which is prohibited by law. For example, a union and an employer cannot use collective bargaining to deprive workers of rights they otherwise have under laws such as civil rights laws (Alexander v.